发 帖  
原厂入驻New

汽车基础知识(三)

2008-5-29 22:40:00  5255
分享
<p><font face="Verdana">汽车基础知识(三)</font><br/>&nbsp; </p>
<p><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">第七节</span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">弹簧和减振器</span></span><span class="title2"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">二)</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">弹簧虽然可以减轻道路对车身的冲击,但如果不让它的振动尽快停下来,我们乘坐的将是一辆跳个不停的汽车。因此,要在弹簧运动的过程中加上一定的阻力</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">学名叫做阻尼</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">,使弹簧的振动迅速衰减。减振器就是这个阻尼设备。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  减振器的结构是带有活塞的活塞杆插入筒内,在筒中充满油。活塞上有节流孔,使得被活塞分隔出来的两部分空间中的油可以互相补充。阻尼就是在具有粘性的油通过节流孔时产生的,节流孔越小,阻尼力越大,油的黏度越大,阻尼力越大。如果节流孔大小不变,当减振器工作速度快时,阻尼过大会影响对冲击的吸收。因此,在节流孔的出口处设置一个圆盘状的板簧阀门,当压力变大时,阀门被顶开,节流孔开度变大,阻尼变小。由于活塞是双向运动的,所以在活塞的两侧都装有板簧阀门,分别叫做压缩阀和伸张阀。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <br/></p>
<p><o:p></o:p></span>&nbsp;</p> 汽车基础知识(三) <br/>&nbsp;
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '"> 减振器按其结构可分为双筒式和单筒式。双筒式是指减振器有内外两个筒,活塞在内筒中运动,由于活塞杆的进入与抽出,内筒中油的体积随之增大与收缩,因此要通过与外筒进行交换来维持内筒中油的平衡。所以双筒减振器中要有四个阀,即除了上面提到的活塞上的两个节流阀外,还有装在内外筒之间的完成交换作用的流通阀和补偿阀。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  与双筒式相比,单筒式减振器结构简单,减少了一套阀门系统。它在缸筒的下部装有一个浮动活塞,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">所谓浮动即指没有活塞杆控制其运动</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">,在浮动活塞的下面形成一个密闭的气室,充有高压氮气。上面提到的由于活塞杆进出油液而造成的液面高度变化就通过浮动活塞的浮动来自动适应之。除了上面所述两种减振器外,还有阻力可调式减振器。它可通过外部操作来改变节流孔的大小。最近的汽车将电子控制式减振器作为标准装备,通过传感器检</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">测行驶状态,由计算机计算出最佳阻尼力,使减振器上的阻尼力调整机构自动工作。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">第八节</span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">轮胎</span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '"> 我们这里讨论的基本上是以目前最常用的无内胎轮胎,即通常所谓的真空胎为对象。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  轮胎的结构分为三部分:胎体、帘布、外胎面。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  胎体较柔软,外胎面刚性较大,中间的帘线起到加强胎体强度和定型的作用,多加以金属丝提高轮胎的弹力性能。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  轿车轮胎大致分为子午线轮胎和斜线轮胎。斜线轮胎的帘线按斜线交叉排列,故而得名。胎体构成了轮胎的基本骨架,从外胎面到胎侧的柔软度是一致的。虽然斜线轮胎的噪音小,外胎面柔软,低速行驶时乘坐舒适性好,且价格便宜,但其综合性能不如子午线轮胎,汽车厂家都是以子午线轮胎为前提研制新车的,随着子午线轮胎的不断改进,斜线轮胎将基本上被淘汰。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>  子午线轮胎的帘布层相当于轮胎的基本骨架,其排列方向与轮胎子午断面一致,由于行驶时轮胎要承受较大的切向作用力,为保证帘线的稳固,在其外部又有若干层由高强度、不易拉伸的材料制成的带束层</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>又称箍紧层</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>,其帘线方向与子午断面呈较大的交角</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>(70-75</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>度</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>,材料多选用玻璃纤维、聚酰胺纤维或钢丝等高强度材料,既起到固定帘线的作用,同时利用束带来提高胎面的刚性。轮胎侧面的刚性小于胎面的刚性,所以在转弯时轮胎侧面因受地面横向力作用发生变形,从而保证了外胎面的触地面积基本保持不变。</span><br/></p>
<p>&nbsp; 汽车基础知识(三) <br/>&nbsp; </p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">子午线轮胎与普通斜线胎相比,弹性大,耐磨性好,滚动阻力小,附着性能好,缓冲性能好,承载能力大,不易刺穿;缺点是胎侧易裂口,由于侧向变形大,导致汽车侧向稳定性稍差,制造技术要求高,成本高。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p>&nbsp; </p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '"> 下面我们举两例来说明斜线轮胎与子午线轮胎的规格及其标识。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">斜线轮胎:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> 5.60-13 4PR 5.60 : </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">轮胎宽</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(5.6</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">英寸</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">) 13 </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">:适合轮辋直径</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(13</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">英寸</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">) 4PR : </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">轮胎强度</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">相当于四层帘布</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">) </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">子午线轮胎:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> 195/60R 14 85 H 195 </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">:轮胎宽</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(195mm) 60 : </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">扁平率</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">轮胎子午断面高宽比</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)(60%) R </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">:轮胎结构</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(Radial) 14 </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">:适合的轮辋直径</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(14</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">英寸</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">) 85 </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">:允许载荷代码</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <span lang="EN-US">H </span></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">:极限速度符号</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(H=210km/h)<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">第三章</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">转向系</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">第一节</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">转向系概述</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  汽车行驶时要经常改变行驶方向,这就需要有一套能够按照司机意志使汽车转向的机构,它将司机转动方向盘的动作转变为车轮</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">通常是前轮</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">的偏转动作。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <br/><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  按转向力能源的不同,可将转向系分为机械转向系和动力转向系。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <br/><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  机械转向系的能量来源是人力,所有传力件都是机械的,由转向操纵机构</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">方向盘</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">、转向器、转向传动机构三大部分组成。其中转向器是将操纵机构的旋转运动转变为传动机构的直线运动</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">严格讲是近似直线运动</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">的机构,是转向系的核心部件。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <br/><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  动力转向系除具有以上三大部件外,其最主要的动力来源是转向助力装置。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">由于转向助力装置最常用的是一套液压系统,因此也就离不开泵、油管、阀、活塞和储油罐,它们分别相当于电路系统中的电池、导线、开关、电机和地线的作用。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p>&nbsp; </p>
<p><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">第二节</span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">转向盘</span></span><span class="title2"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">转向盘即通常所说的方向盘。转向盘内部有金属制成的骨架,是用钢、铝合金或镁合金等材料制成。由圆环状的盘圈、插入转向轴的转向盘毂,以及连接盘圈和盘毂的辐条构成。采用焊接或铸造等工艺制造,转向轴是由细齿花键和螺母连接的。骨架的外侧一般包有柔软的合成橡胶或树脂,也有采用皮革包裹以及硬木制作的转向盘。转向盘外皮要求有某种程度的柔软度,手感良好,能防止手心出汗打滑的材质,还需要有耐热、耐候性。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  转向盘的功能:转向盘位于司机的正前方,是碰撞时最可能伤害到司机的部件,因此需要转向盘具有很高的安全性,在司机撞在转向盘上时,骨架能够产生变形,吸收冲击能,减轻对司机的伤害。转向盘的惯性力矩也是很重要的,惯性力矩小,我们就会感到“轮轻”,操做感良好,但同时也容易受到转向盘的反弹</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">即“打手”</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">的影响,为了设定适当的惯性力矩,就要调整骨架的材料或形状等。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  现在的转向盘与以前的看似没有太大变化,但实际上已经有了改进。由于转向助力装置的普及,转向盘外径变小了,而手握处却变粗了,采用柔软材料,使操作感得到了改善。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  现在有越来越多的汽车在转向盘里安装了安全气囊,也使汽车的安全性大大提高了。转向盘的集电环:转向盘上有喇叭开关,必须时刻与车身电器线路相连,而旋转的转向盘与组合开关之间显然不能用导线直接相连,因此就必须采用集电环装置。集电环好比环形的地铁轨道,喇叭开关的触点就象奔跑在轨道上的电车,时刻保持接通的状态。由于是机械接触,长时间使用触点会因磨损影响导电性,导致紧急时刻喇叭不鸣甚至气囊不工作。因此,最近装备气囊的汽车开始装用电缆盘,代替集电环。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?>  转向盘的端子与组合开关的端子用电缆线连接,电缆盘将电线卷入盘内,类似于吸尘器的电线卷取机构,在转向盘旋转范围内,电线靠卷筒自由伸缩。这种装置大大提高了电器装置的可靠性。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times new=" AR-SA? mso-bidi-language: ZH-CN; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: Roman?; New?> </span><br/></p> 汽车基础知识(三) <br/>&nbsp;
<p><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">第三节</span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> </span></span><span class="title2"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">转向柱</span></span><span class="title2"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">为牢固支承转向盘而设有转向柱。传递转向盘操作的转向轴从中穿过,由轴承和衬套支承。转向柱本体安装在车身上。转向机构应备有吸收汽车碰撞时产生的冲击能的装置。许多国家都规定轿车义务安装吸能式转向柱。吸能装置的方式很多,大都通过转向柱的支架变形来达到缓冲吸能的作用。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  转向轴与转向器齿轮箱之间采用连轴节相连</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">即两个万向节</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">,之所以用连轴节,除了可以改变转向轴的方向,还有就是使得转向轴可以作纵向的伸缩运动,以配合转向柱的缓冲运动。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New="New"  Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">  可倾斜式转向机构:正是由于有了连轴节,转向轴可以有不同的倾斜角度,使转向盘的位置可以上下倾斜,适应各种身高和体形的司机。通过操作位于转向柱下侧的手柄,使转向柱处于放松状态,将转向盘调至自己喜好的位置,再反向转动手柄,使转向柱固定在新的位置上。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '; mso-fareast-font-family: 宋体; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: 'Times New="New"  Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-CN; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA"> </span><br/></p> 汽车基础知识(三) <br/>&nbsp;
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">现在的一些高级轿车上已经采用电动式转向盘倾斜调整机构。转向轴内装有专用电机,使转向轴改变倾斜角度。最新型的调整机构是全自动式由计算机控制的。司机在下车前将点火钥匙拔出,转向盘便自动升起,以便司机顺利下车。但计算机会记住原来的转向盘位置,当点火钥匙再次插入时,转向盘会自动恢复原位。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  可伸缩式转向机构:该机构可象望远镜那样伸缩调整转向盘的前后位置。转向轴也象望远镜一样有双重结构,内筒与外筒用花键啮合,使它们无法相对转动,而只能沿键槽方向做伸缩运动。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p><span style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; mso-ascii-font-family: ' '; mso-hansi-font-family: ' '">  与倾斜调整机构相同,可操作手柄解除或固定伸缩动作,一部分车也采用电动式计算机控制的全自动伸缩式转向机构。</span><span class="title2"><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 9pt; COLOR: black; FONT-FAMILY: ' '"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>
[此贴子已经被作者于2008-5-29 22:41:17编辑过]
0
2008-5-29 22:40:00   评论 分享淘帖
6 个讨论
2013-8-31 16:28:29 评论

举报

不能下载啊  是什么东西
2013-9-2 13:56:57 评论

举报

{:23:}
2013-9-7 08:02:10 评论

举报

看不清楚,没有整理啊
2014-1-20 22:06:23 评论

举报

标题party哦。。。。。。。。。。
2014-1-21 16:03:42 评论

举报

对于这个帖子,我想说
2014-4-27 19:58:40 评论

举报

只有小组成员才能发言,加入小组>>

2738个成员聚集在这个小组

加入小组

创建小组步骤

关闭

站长推荐 上一条 /8 下一条

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表