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[经验] LIDAR与RADAR在自动驾驶汽车中的比较

2018-10-30 14:30:22  1456 digikey 自动驾驶 传感器
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最近有关自动驾驶汽车的消息很难避免。
自动驾驶车辆驱动了超过5000万的实际物理里程,更不用说数亿英里的模拟里程了。
不幸的是,随着纠结的解决,已经并且将会发生事故。
在每个人最喜欢的搜索引擎和与爱迪生最有名的人同名的公司之间,似乎有两种技术引领潮流。
激光雷达与雷达
利用的技术归结为LIDAR与RADAR,后者更为人所知。
RADAR是“无线电探测和测距”的首字母缩写。
RADAR使用无线电波发出特定频率的检测信号,并等待接收该信号。
一旦检测到,就计算频率信号变化(包括多普勒频移),以在自动车辆的情况下确定汽车和障碍物的位置以及它们行进的速度。
另一方面,激光雷达是“光探测和测距”的首字母缩写。
LIDAR使用多个红外光脉冲来测量物体的距离和速度。
通过发出这些光脉冲,LIDAR系统可以生成车辆周围环境的高精度地图。
SparkFun的SEN-14032
就技术最适合自主应用而言,还没有“胜利者”。
激光雷达在恶劣的天气条件(即雪,雨,雾)中有其局限性。
虽然RADAR似乎没有受到天气条件的负面影响,但它不能像LIDAR那样准确地传递物体的大小和形状。
此外,RADAR不是一个独立的解决方案。
通常,RADAR伴随着大量的被动超声波传感器
然而,当谈到价格点时,LIDAR仍然相对昂贵。
对于想要亲自动手或开发的设计师,Digi-Key现在拥有SparkFun Electronics的SEN-14032 LIDAR光学传感器
它具有令人印象深刻的130英尺感应距离,远远超过其他光学距离传感器。
SparkFun在SEN-14032上提供了出色的产品演示视频。
Digi-Key还有各种RADAR组件,以及放大器,探测器,混频器和其他IC。
结论
根据特斯拉的说法,完全自动驾驶汽车将于2017年底发布。大家都会购买吗?
不会有意外吗?
是。
我们是否会像Jetsons一样驾驶自驾车/飞行汽车?
可能不是(但我的手指交叉)。
然而,一旦技术完善,我相信它将减少交通事故,减少事故中的生命损失和一些非常甜蜜的游乐设施。
参考文献:
1  -  http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/lidar.html
2  -  http://www.bom.gov.au/australia/radar/about/what_is_radar.shtml
3  -  http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/ ... utonomous-vehicles/
4  -  https://www.theguardian.com/tech ... sla-crash-elon-musk
5  -  https://electrek.co/2016/04/11/g ... ar-tesla-autopilot/

以上来自于谷歌翻译


以下为原文

Recently the news of autonomous vehicles is hard to avoid. Upwards of 50 million actual physical miles have been driven by autonomous vehicles, not to mention the hundreds of millions of simulated miles. The unfortunate side is that there have been and will be accidents as the kinks get worked out. Between everyone’s favorite search engine and the company bearing the namesake of the most famous person Edison cheated, there seem to be two technologies leading the way.
LIDAR vs RADAR
The utilized tech comes down to LIDAR versus RADAR with the latter being the more well known. RADAR is an acronym for “Radio Detection and Ranging”. Using radio waves, RADAR sends out a detection signal at a specIFic frequency and waits to receive that signal back. Once detected, the frequency signal change is calculated (Doppler shift included) to determine, in the case of autonomous vehicles, where cars and obstacles are positioned and at what speeds they are traveling. LIDAR, on the other hand, is an acronym for “Light Detection and Ranging”. LIDAR uses multiple infrared light pulses to measure the distance and speed of an object. By sending out these light pulses, a LIDAR system can generate a highly accurate map of the surroundings of a vehicle.
SparkFun's SEN-14032
There has yet to be a “winner” as far as what technology works best for autonomous applications. LIDAR has its limitations in adverse weather conditions (i.e. snow, rain, fog). While RADAR doesn’t seem to be as negatively affected by weather conditions, it cannot relay size and shape of objects as accurately as LIDAR. Additionally, RADAR is not a stand-alone solution. Typically, RADAR is accompanied by a plethora of passive ultra-sonic sensors. However, when it comes to price point LIDAR is still relatively expensive.
For designers wanting to get their hands on something to play with or develop with, Digi-Key now has the SEN-14032 LIDAR Optical Sensor from SparkFun Electronics. It totes an impressive 130-foot sensing distance which far exceeds other optical distance sensors. SparkFun provides a great product demo video on the SEN-14032. Digi-Key has a wide array of RADAR components as well from amplifiers, detectors, mixers and other ICs.
Conclusion
According to Tesla, fully autonomous cars will be released at the end of 2017. Will everyone buy in? No. Will there be accidents? Yes. Are we going to be flying around in self-driving/flying cars like the Jetsons? Probably not (but my fingers are crossed). Once the technology is peRFected, however, I believe it will lead to fewer traffic incidents, less loss of life in accidents and some pretty sweet rides.
References:
1 – http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/lidar.html
2 – http://www.bom.gov.au/australia/radar/about/what_is_radar.shtml
3 – http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/ ... utonomous-vehicles/
4 – https://www.theguardian.com/tech ... sla-crash-elon-musk
5 – https://electrek.co/2016/04/11/g ... ar-tesla-autopilot/

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