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数码相机维修知识
2008-10-17 17:28:29  3524
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<p class="MsoNormal"><b><span style="FONT-SIZE: 15pt; FONT-FAMILY: 宋体; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机维修知识</span></b><b><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 15pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" /><o:p></o:p></span></b></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  数码相机又称为数字相机,简称</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DCS(Digital Still Camera)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">。其实质是一种非胶片相机,它采用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">(电荷藕合器件)或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">(互补金属氧化物半导体)作为光电转换器件,将被摄物体以数字形式记录在存储器中。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  特性:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  数码相机是集光学、机械、电子于一体的的现代高技术产品,它集成了影像信息的转换、存储和传输等多种部件,具有数字化存取模式、与计算机交互处理和实时拍摄的特点。因此数码相机有如下之特性:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">1.</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">立即成像:数码相机属电子取像,可立即在液晶显示器、计算机显示器或电视上显示,可实时监视影像效果,也可随时删除不理想的图片。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">2.</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">与计算机兼容:数码相机存储器里的图像输送到计算机后通过影像处理软件,可从事剪切,编辑、打印等,并可将影像存储在计算机中。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">3.</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">电信传送:数码相机可将图像信号转换为电子信号,经电信传输网或内部网进行传输(邮政影像专递</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">——E-mail</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">)。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  基本结构:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  数码相机与传统的胶片相机两者最大的区别是在它们各自的内部结构和原理上。它们的共同点是均由光学镜头、取景器、对焦系统、快门、光圈、内置电子闪光灯等组成,有的数码相机既有取景器还有液晶显示器</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">LCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">。但数码相机还有其特殊的结构,如</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、仿真信号处理器、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">模数转换器、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数字信号处理器、图像处理器、图像存储器和输出控制单元等。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  以下是数码相机主要部件的主要功能:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">1)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">镜头主要功能:把光线会聚到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器上,起到调整焦距的作用。对于定焦数码相机,镜头、物体和聚焦平面间的理想距离被精确计算,从而固定了镜头和光圈的位置。对于</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">ZOOM </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机,有一个机械装置,可以带动镜头组前后运动,一直让镜头保持在聚焦平面中央,能够捕捉到距离镜头的远近的物体。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <span lang="EN-US"><br/></span></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">2)CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">)图像传感器主要功能:把镜头传来的图像信号转变为仿真电信号。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">3)A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换器主要功能:数码相机利用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换器将</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">产生的仿真电信号转换为数字信号,并传输到图像处理单元。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">4)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数字信号处理器主要功能:数字信号处理器主要功能是通过一系列复杂的数学运算法,如加、减、乘、除、积分等,对数字图像信号进行优化处理</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">包括:白平衡、彩色平衡、伽玛校正与边缘校正等</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">5)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像压缩主要功能:数码相机的图像处理包括数据压缩,图像压缩的目的是为了节省存储空间,利用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">JPEG</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">编码器把得到的图像转换为静止压缩的图像</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(JPEG</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">格式</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">6)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">总体控制电路主要功能:主控程序芯片</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(MCU)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">能协调和控制测光、运算、曝光、闪光控制及拍摄逻辑控制。当电源开启时,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">MCU</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">则开始距检查各功能是否正常,若正常,相机处于准备状态。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  工作原理:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  数码相机在使用过程中,半按快门对准被摄的景物</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">快门</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">ON</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">状态,与胶片相机相反</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">,从镜头传来的光图像经过光电转换器</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS) </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">感应将光信号转换成为一一对应的仿真信号,再经</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">模数转换器转换,把仿真电信号变成数字信号,最后经过图像处理器</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP(Digital Signal Processor)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">和主控程序芯片</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(MCU)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">按照指定的文件格式,把图像以二进制数码的形式显示在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">LCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">上,如按下快门,则把图像存入存储器中。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机的工作步骤大致分如下:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、开机准备:当打开相机的电源时,其内部的主控程序就开始检测各部件是否正常。如某一部件有异常,内部的蜂鸣器就会发出警报或在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">LCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">上提示错误信息并停止工作。如一切正常,就进入准备状态。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">2</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、聚焦及测光:数码相机一般都有自动聚焦和测光功能。当打开</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSC</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">电源时,相机内部的主控程序芯片</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(MCU)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">立即进行测光运算,曝光控制和闪光控制及拍摄逻辑控制。当对准物体并把快门按下一半时,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">MCU</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">开始工作,图像信号经过镜头测光(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">TTL</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">测光方式)传到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">上并直接以</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">输出的电压信号作为对焦信号,经过</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">MCU</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">的运算、比较再进行计算、确定对焦的距离和快门速度及光圈的大小,驱动镜头组的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">AF</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">和</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">AE</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">装置进行聚焦。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">3</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、图像捕捉:在聚焦及测光完成后再按下快门,摄像器件(</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">或</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">)就把从被摄景物上反射的光进行捕捉并以红、绿、蓝三种像素(颜色)存储。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">4</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、图像处理:就是把捕捉的图像进行</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换、图像处理、白平衡处理、色彩较正等,再到存储区合成在一起形成一幅完整的数字图像,在图像出来后再经过</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">单元进行压缩转换为</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">JPEG</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">格式(静止图像压缩方式),以便节省空间。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">5</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、图像存储:在图像处理单元压缩的图像送到存储器中进行保存。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">6</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、图像的输出:存储在数码相机存储器的图像通过输出端口可以输出送到计算机,可在计算机里通过图像处理程序(软件)进行图形编辑、处理、打印或网上传输等。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  功能:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  在中高级的数码相机中,一般都含有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">AE</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">功能和</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">AF</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">功能</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> AE</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">功能当</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSC</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">相机对准被摄物体时,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">根据镜头传来的图像亮度的强弱,转变为</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数字电压信号,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">再根据</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数字电压信号进行运算处理,再把运算结果传输给</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">MCU</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">迅速找到合适的快门速度和镜头光圈的大小最佳值,由</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">MCU</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">控制</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">AE</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">机构进行自动曝光。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">2</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">)</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> AF</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">功能</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">直接利用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">输出的数字电压信号作为对焦信号,经过</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">MCU</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">的运算比较进行驱动镜头</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">AF</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">机构前后运动。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  分类:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  目前数码相机的分类很多,如果按图像传感器来分,可分为</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机和</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">:<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机是指数码相机使用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器来记录图像,属中高文件相机。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">本身是不能分辨各种颜色的光,要用不同颜色的滤色片配合使用,因此</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机有以下两种工作方式:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">1</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、利用透镜和分光镜将光图像信号分成</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">R</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">G</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">B</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">三种颜色,并分别作用在三片</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">上,这三种颜色的光经</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换为仿真电信号,然后经</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换器转换为数字信号,再经</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数字信号处理器处理后存储到存储器中。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">2</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、在每个像素点的位置上有三个分别加上</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">R</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">G</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">B</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">三种颜色滤色片的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">,经过透镜后的光图像信号被分别作用在不同的传感器上,并将它们转换为仿真电信号,然后经</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换器转换为数字信号,再经</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数字信号处理器处理后存储到内存中。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机是指数码相机使用</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器来记录图像。其工作方式与</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">数码相机相似,目前属低档相机。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器与</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器比较:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器易与</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">电路、数字信号处理器</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">DSP</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">电路等集成在一起。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器只能单一的锁存到成千上万的采样点上的光线的状态,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">则可以完成其它的许多功能,如</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">A/D</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">转换,负载信号处理、白平衡处理及相机控制</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">(</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">白平衡调调整就是通过图像调整,使在各种光线条件下拍的照片色彩与人眼看到的景物色彩一样</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">)</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">。另外,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器还有耗电小的优点,其耗电量约为</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">1/10</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">。但目前</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CMOS</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器在解析力和色彩上还不如</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??">CCD</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">图像传感器,图像有噪音、准确捕捉动态图像的能力还不强。</span></p>
<p class="zw2" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  聚焦:</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="zw" style="WORD-BREAK: break-all; LINE-HEIGHT: 19.2pt"><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  聚焦是清晰成像的前提,数码相机一般都有自动聚焦功能。数码相机的自动聚焦功能与传统的胶片相机类似,也有主动式和被动式两种形式。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> <br/></span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">  主动式就是相机主动发射红外线(或超声波),根据目标的反射进行对焦。</span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"> </span><span style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; mso-ascii-font-family: ??; mso-hansi-font-family: ??">被动式就是相机不发射任何射线而根据目标的成像进行对焦。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="FONT-SIZE: 10.5pt; FONT-FAMILY: ??"><br/>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
0
2008-10-17 17:28:29   评论 分享淘帖
11 个讨论
顶一个
2009-7-30 15:48:50 评论

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顶一个<br/>
2009-7-30 11:56:18 评论

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这都是啥  乱码啊
2012-9-2 14:06:06 评论

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哪里复制来的啊,全是乱码么
2012-9-4 22:58:09 评论

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2012-10-24 19:28:51 评论

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无语中
2012-11-4 22:12:15 评论

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哪里复制来的啊,全是乱码么      无语中
2014-2-17 17:37:25 评论

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很好的资料,在应用中,谢谢LZ
2014-2-17 17:41:07 评论

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路过看看看
2015-8-25 19:43:31 评论

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路过看看看
2015-8-25 19:44:36 评论

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路过看看看
2015-8-25 19:45:18 评论

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